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Los Mineros Photographs circa 1910-1950

MP SPC 186

Overview of the Collection

Creator: Galán, Hector
Title: Los Mineros Photographs
Inclusive Dates: circa 1910-1950
Quantity: 709 Photographs (0.5 Linear Feet)
Abstract:This collection documents the lives of Mexican and Mexican-American copper miners in the Clifton-Morenci area who worked in the Phelps Dodge Copper Mine and their efforts to form a union between 1900 and 1950.
Identification: MP SPC 186
Language: Material in English
Repository: Arizona State University Library. Chicano Research Collection
Arizona State University Library
P.O. Box 871006
Tempe, AZ 85287-1006
Phone: (480) 965-4932
Questions? Ask An Archivist!

Historical Note

No historical information is available.

Scope and Content Note

The photographs in this collection were gathered by Hector Galan Productions of Austin, Texas to be used in the documentary Los Mineros, which was part of a prime time, public television series called American Experience. It was originally broadcast on January 28, 1991.

The collection and the documentary trace the lives of Mexican and Mexican-American copper miners in the Clifton-Morenci area who worked in the Phelps Dodge Copper Mine and their efforts to form a union between 1900 and 1950. The collection includes scenes of labor organizing by the International Workers of the World (I.W.W.) and the International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers; the Bisbee Deportation (1917); the repatriation of Mexican miners during the Depression; the military service of Mexican-Americans in both World Wars; the living conditions of the miners' families; and working conditions in the mines. Most photographs were made in the Clifton-Morenci area, although a number were made by servicemen while overseas during World War II. Most photographs are snapshots by unidentified photographers, although there are a few commercial and studio photographs.


This collection consists of seven hundred and nine photographs divided into seventeen series:
Series 186.1: John Armenta
Series 186.2: Gilberto Arrieta
Series 186.3: Arthur G. Castro
Series 186.4: Umberto Haro
Series 186.5: Clinton E. Jencks Family
Series 186.6: Edward (Lalo) Marquez
Series 186.7: Manuel Martinez
Series 186.8: Edward Montoya
Series 186.9: S. A. Morales
Series 186.10: Francisco Otero
Series 186.11: Fred Padilla
Series 186.12: Frank Perea
Series 186.13: John Pintek
Series 186.14: David Velasquez
Series 186.15: Jesus J. Villanueva
Series 186.16: Alberto Ybarra
Series 186.17: Pablo and Mary Salcido


Access Restrictions

Reproductions from this collection may not be exhibited, published, or copied in any fashion without the advanced, written permission of the department. A fee may be charged for some forms of use. Reproductions from this collection may not be placed in another archive or repository without the written consent of the department.

To view this collection, make an appointment at least five business days prior to your visit by contacting Ask an Archivist or calling (480) 965-4932. Appointments in the Distinctive Collections Wurzburger Reading Room at Hayden Library (rm. 138) on the Tempe campus are available on Monday, Tuesday, and Thursday from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.; Wednesday from 9 a.m. to 7 p.m.; and Friday from 9 a.m. to 12 p.m.


The Arizona Board of Regents retains copyright to this collection for and on behalf of Distinctive Collections, Arizona State University Library. Requests for permissions to publish, display, or redistribute information from this collection must be submitted via our online application.

Related Material

Los Mineros [Video Recording]. Produced and Directed by Hector Galan. Available both in English and Spanish.

MSS 137: Clinton Jencks Papers, 1950-1957 (guide available at contain information about Jencks' labor organizing activities with the International Union of Mine, Mill and Smelters Workers in the Southwest between 1950 and 1957. They also house IUMMSW union memorandums, newsletters, newspaper clippings, magazine articles, and printed matter documenting Jencks' work as the international union representative of Amalgamated Bayard District Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers Local 890, a union with a predominately Mexican American membership. Finally, the collection includes information about the fifteen-month Empire Zinc strike in Hanover, New Mexico led by Local 890 of IUMMSW and information about the "Jencks Case," the 1954 trial in El Paso, Texas where Jencks successfully fought false charges brought against him by an undercover FBI informant who believed Jencks to be a member of the Communist Party.

Access Terms

Personal Name(s)
Castro, Raul H. (Raul Hector), 1916-2015
Galán, Hector.
Jencks, Clinton E., 1918-2005.

Corporate Name(s)
Industrial Workers of the World.
International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers.
New Jersey Zinc Company.
Phelps Dodge Corporation.

Geographic Name(s)
Bisbee (Ariz.).
Clifton (Ariz.).
Hanover (N.H.).
Morenci (Ariz.).

Bisbee (Ariz.) -- Social conditions -- Photographs.
Copper mines and mining -- Arizona -- Photographs.
Depressions -- 1929 -- United States.
Mexican Americans -- Arizona -- Photographs.
Minority miners -- Arizona -- Photographs.
Repatriation -- Mexico.

Administrative Information

Credit Line

[Identification of item], Los Mineros Photographs, [Series], Arizona State University Library.


These photographs were originally gathered by Hector Galan Productions of Austin, Texas between 1989 and 1990 during the production of the television program Los Mineros. Owners of the photographs were asked to loan them to the Department of Archives and Special Collections, Arizona State University Libraries to be copied and assembled into this collection. Copy photography was done in the department by staff photographer D. Ted Harris. A number of individuals allowed the department to keep the originals as well.

Processing Note

The call number for the collection as a whole is MP SPC 186. Each series is numbered, separated from the collection number by a period. Each item within a series is numbered, separated from the series number by a colon. For example, MP SPC 186.6:4 is the fourth item in the sixth series in this collection.

Container List

Series 186.1: John Armenta
1: 1Mrs. Armenta and her four sons went to war
Series 186.2: Gilberto Arrieta
2: 1Studio portrait of Gilberto Arrieta of Morenci, Arizona when he was about 30 years old, circa 1940
2: 2Snapshot of men and women on a picket line outside the mines; Gilbert Arrieta is on the far right; Clifton-Morenci, Arizona, 1946
2: 3Funeral for Jose Maria Acosta; procession with banner gathered around coffin in street, 1918 April
Series 186.3: Arthur G. Castro
Arthur G. Castro is the nephew of Raul Castro, first Mexican-American Governor of Arizona.
3: 1Studio portrait of Francisco Castro, Sr., circa 1920
3: 2Snapshot of Raul Castro and a young woman boxing outdoors, circa 1920
3: 3Class portrait of students at Pirtleville School; Raul Castro is second from right in back
3: 4Raul Castro in white shirt and pants standing next to an automobile, circa 1930
3: 5Snapshot of smelter workers; Francisco Castro, Jr. is second from the right; Clifton-Morenci, Arizona, circa 1930
3: 6Snapshot of the Castro family in a yard; Mrs. Castro is in the middle, Raul is kneeling, circa 1930
3: 7Studio portrait of Aunt, Enriqueta, and two Castro brothers (possibly Ignacio seated); Nogales, 1908
3: 8Group portrait of the Castro family; Raul Castro and wife in back. Photographed by Gonz lez Baz [sic], circa 1940
3: 9Studio portrait of Francisco Castro, Sr., circa 1920 (Duplicate of SPC 186.3:1)
3: 10Snapshot of men in a parade with flags and the banner of the Sociedad Mutalista of Douglas, Arizona, 1925
3: 11Group portrait of Ignacio, Alfonso, Angel, Francisco, Jr., and Raul Castro with Chalita (Ignacio's mother) sitting, circa 1954
3: 12Color snapshot of Francisco, Raul, Enriqueta, Angel, and Ignacio Castro at Raul's gubernatorial inauguration, 1975
3: 13Snapshot of Chalita, Angel, and all of their grandchildren, circa 1940
3: 14Snapshot of Ernesto, Soita, Calderon, Chicote, Raul, and Guilo seated on the front of a car, circa 1945
3: 15La Carcel de Cananea; postcard photograph. Sonora, Mexico. Photographed by MF
3: 16Group portrait outdoors in the snow in front of an adobe building (K-R) Great Tio, Tio Castro, Chalita, unidentified child, Preciano, two of Chalita's sisters and an unidentified child. Cananea or Douglas, Arizona, circa 1900
3: 17Group portrait of ten obreros en Carcel de Cananea [fragment]; Francisco Castro, Ignacio's father, is standing to the far right, 1907
3: 18Recuredo de nuestro antepasados. Studio portrait of ten obreros; Francisco Castro is second from the far left, standing; Pueblo Nuevo, 1916
3: 19Wedding entourage with horse-drawn carriage; Chalita and Francisca Castro standing to the right with child in arms; s.l., circa 1920
Series 186.4: Umberto Haro
4: 1Studio portrait of Umberto (Benny) Haro in U.S. Army uniform at the beginning of World War II, 1940-1941
4: 2Snapshot of Cipriano Haro in uniform of World War II flight crew; inscribed: "to my whole family", 1945
4: 3Snapshot of five men with shovels making an outpost in the Aleutian Islands during World War II; Jose Garcia is one of the men, circa 1945
4: 4Gonzalo and Benny; snapshot of Benny Haro and another man in uniform in front of tents, circa 1945
Benny Haro was in Army Reconnaisance.
4: 5Christmas photo postcard showing interior of Pasttime Bar; Moise Delgado, Gilbert Preciado, Gilbert Navarro, and other celebrating after the end of World War II; Superior, Arizona, 1945-1946
4: 6Snapshot of Trini and Maria Haro and Haro family children doing the weekly laundry outside a stone building, circa 1930
4: 7Snapshot of a group of seven soldiers including Dave Avendano and Jose Garcia; Aleutian Islands, circa 1945
Series 186.5: Clinton E. Jencks Family
Captions 11-96 taken from back of prints.
5: 1Clinton Jencks at microphone during an MMSWU convention; David Velasquez is seated in the audience in front of the District 2 sign, Henry Marquez is seated in front of him, and the representative from Silver City is behind Velasquez. Photograph by Mickey Pallas (Mocked Up for Newspaper Reproduction)
5: 2Clinton Jencks and five Mexican-American labor organizers seated at a table in a jail
5: 3Group portrait of Clinton Jencks and five Mexican-American labor organizers
5: 4Clinton Jencks and five Mexican-American labor organizers behind bars in jail
5: 5Women marching in a strike line; Silver City, New Mexico, circa 1950
5: 6Mexican-American women being accosted by a Euro-American male wearing a gun belt. Amalgamated Bayard District Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers, Local 890; Bayard, New Mexico
Regarding Bayard District-wide mine/mill union strike. This picture L to R: at Empire div. of the New Jersey Zinc Co. 11 mo. picket line, Hanover, New Mexico near Bayard Louis Rhea, former Co. paid gunman now stationed at Hanover as Deputy Sheriff making arrest of women picket. Mary Perez, from the all-woman picket line being black-jacked (Note: black-jack just to left of her shoulder a short distance from his clinched fist). Note: Now held in jail on complaints of Rhea and another deputy sheriff who is a scab, for peace bond guaranteeing their safety, who testify they are "deathly afraid" of her, this photo is proof of the opposite.
5: 7Hurt woman in a street surrounded by other women strikers being given medical aid, circa 1950
5: 8E-2 strike. Mineros carrying a picket sign standing with Clinton Jencks; mine building in background; Jencks in far right (Crop Marks in Grease Pencil on Image)
5: 9E-2 pickets Jesus Becerra and Juan Padilla seated next to International Representative Clinton Jencks; sign in background reads "We want equality with other workers ..."
5: 10During E-2 strike. Juan Padilla with Clinton Jencks
5: 11Courthouse rally during Empire Zinc strike. Foreground: Mr. and Mrs. Pablo Montoya and son, chief shop steward, and family; Clinton E. Jencks, international union representative, 1951
5: 12District Court House during trial of Local 890, International Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers Union leaders on charges of contempt of court for allowing violation of Judge Marshall's injunction against picketing in Empire Zinc Strike at Hanover, New Mexico; Silver City, New Mexico, 1950-1952
5: 13Aftermath of Empire Zinc Strike, 1950-1952. Floyd Bostick's house burned by arsonist
Bostick was the only Anglo Executive Board Member of Local 890, IUMMSW, except for Clinton E. Jencks, President of Local 809 and later full-time International Union Representative.
5: 14Actual company housing. Empire Zinc Co., Hanover, New Mexico. Note outhouse in Chicano housing area, 1951
5: 15Empire Zinc Superintendent Huett (left) and abandoned strike breaker's auto, 1951
5: 16Actual woman's picket line. Empire Zinc Company, 1951
5: 17Empire Zine Strike picket line. Hanover, New Mexico, 1951
5: 18The women of Grant County on the Empire Zinc line. Hanover, New Mexico, 1951 Summer
5: 19Empire Zinc Strike picket line. Hanover, New Mexico, 1951
5: 20Mr. and Mrs. Henry Polanco after being run down by a scab car on line. Empire Zinc Strike, Hanover, New Mexico, 1951 August
5: 21Left-Right: Fayette Rice (Trigger-Happy Rice), company-paid gunman; L. Brown, chief deputy for Grant County Sheriff Goforth. Empire Zinc strike, 1951 July
In the car, but not in sight except arm, is Deputy Sheriff Lester Williams, soon to take over new bunch of deputies at Empire Zinc picket line.
5: 22Empire Zinc strike, Hanover, New Mexico, 1951
5: 23Virginia Chacon, foreground, officer of the Ladies Auxillary and wife of President of Local 890, IUMM and SW on actual picket line, Empire Zinc Strike, Hanover, New Mexico, 1951
5: 24Women knitting on picket line. Empire Zinc strike. Hanover, New Mexico, 1951
5: 25Henry Polanco, run down by strike breaker's auto on picket line. Empire Zinc Strike; Hanover, New Mexico, 1951
5: 26Empire Zinc strike, New Jersey Zinc Co., Hanover New Mexico, Mine Mill local 890. State police guarding Grant County Courthouse while Mine Mill strike leadership stand trial
5: 27Strikers and families at Empire Zinc strike picket line, Hanover, New Mexico, 1951
5: 28Women pickets at Empire Zinc strike picket line, Hanover, New Mexico, 1951
5: 29Strike-breaker auto and deputy sheriffs in front of women's picket line, Empire Zinc strike, Hanover, New Mexico, 1951
5: 30Taking over the courthouse during an injunction hearing, the M-M mob. Empire Zinc, 1951 July
Mrs. Iguado, on crutches, was run down by striker breakers' auto attempting to crash through picket line.
5: 31Mrs. Iguado after having been run down by strike breaker car, resting in picket line tent, Empire Zinc strike, Hanover New Mexico, 1951
5: 32Women's picket line, Empire Zinc strike, Hanover New Mexico, 1951
5: 33Strike breaker's vehicle racing engine, threatening to run down women on picket line. Empire Zinc strike, Hanover, New Mexico, 1951
5: 34Hanover, New Mexico, New Jersey Zinc strike. 15 Mexican-American women in picket line
5: 35Women picketing in the rain, Empire Zinc strike, Hanover, New Mexico, 1951
5: 36District court house, Silver City, New Mexico. Union supporters during trial of union leaders for contempt allegedly allowing violations of Judge Marshall's injunction against picketing, 1952
5: 37Mrs. Consuelo Martinez, taking to hospital after two scab cars, bumper to bumper, ran over her on Empire Zinc line, breaking thigh in 3 places. Empire Zinc strike, Hanover, New Mexico, 1951 August 23
5: 38Empire Zinc strike, New Jersey Zinc company, Hanover New Mexico. Mine Mill Local 890. Scabs wait while women picket
5: 39Christmas on the Empire Zinc picket lines, Hanover, New Mexico, 1951
5: 40L to R: Carmen Molina; Rudy Chapin
5: 41Empire Zinc strike picket line. Company housing in background, Undated
5: 42Empire Zinc picket shack, Hanover, New Mexico, Undated
5: 43Tear gas on the Empire Zinc line, 1951 June 13
5: 44Mine-Mill union women and children after release from Grant County jail tear gassed and jailed for picketing in Empire Zinc strike by Sheriff Goforth and District Attorney Tom Foy, 1951 June 16
119 arrested and jailed.
5: 45Women and children awaiting trial. Empire Zinc strike
5: 46Augustine Martinez, by-stander, during picket line assault by strike breakers, 1951 August 23
Scab shot into the crowd on hill, injuring Martinez, just returned from service in U.S. armed forces. Martinez spent a long time at Fort Baynard VA hospital after shooting.
5: 47Some of the women going to court, June 18. Youngest jailed, Juan Velasquez, in arms of mother (to left of union's attorney, Serna) 29-day-old strike on date of jailing
Brother Velasquez is VP of Local 890 and strike commission chairman.
5: 48Company gunmen waiting trial to raid the all-woman picket line the arrest the women pickets for assault and battery. Empire Zinc strike, New Jersey Zinc Co., Hanover, New Mexico, Mine Mill Local 890
5: 49Albert Munoz, worker and his home. Grant County, New Mexico
5: 50Scabs at picket line trying to provoke the women on the all woman picket line into throwing rocks at them by use of sign and other agitation
The one on the left, Hartless, was later arrested for indecent exposure by women and children pickets. All 3 scabs are under-age, two are high school students hired by the company as scabs. This was an 11-month strike Empire Division of the New Jersey Zinc Co., Hanover, New Mexico.
5: 51The most arrested woman [Mrs. Elvira Molano] in Empire Zinc strike making another trip to jail
Mrs. Elvira Molano, co-chairman, Union Negotiating Committee. All arrests to date, assault and battery on company paid gunmen.
5: 52Junior pickets. Empire Zinc picket line, 1951 July
5: 53Miss Juarez, 14-yrs.-old. Empire Zinc strike. Run down by scab, 1951 July
5: 54All-woman picket line since June 13. Empire Zinc workers on strike since October 1950. Hanover, New Mexico
5: 55Rachel Juarez, 14 years old, after being released from hospital. Empire Zinc strike, 1951
She was the teen-age girl who was driven over by scabs, August 23, 1951. Rachel is not able to do her picket duty, still suffering from shock, bruises and injuries. Rachel said upon release from hospital: "I'll be back on the picket line in a couple of days and sooner if scabs come".
5: 56Mrs. Consuelo Martinez, wife of striker and mother of 5 children after being run down Aug. 23, by scab-driven autos at Empire Division of New Jersey Zinc Company strike; hospitalized with broken leg
Sheriff L. K. Goforth and all his deputies were present at the time; 4 hospitalized, still no arrests.
5: 57Empire Zinc strike picket line, Hanover, New Mexico, 1951
5: 58Empire Zinc strike picket line, Hanover, New Mexico, 1951
5: 59Mrs. Charles Chavez and Mrs. Elvira Molano, L to R respectively ... being taken to Grant County Jail by special deputy Louis Rhea, reported on pay-roll of Empire Zinc Company
Rhea's brother is a scab working behind the picket line; he was a company gunman prior to scabbing. Mrs. Chavez and Mrs. Molano's husband's seniority totals 43 years with the company. The women were charged with assault and battery by company scabs and gunmen. Mrs. Molano is in jail, one of the Mine-Mill 6.
5: 60Wife of Local 890 members (pickets) attending trial of Mine Mill, outside of court after walking out
5: 61The most arrested woman in the Empire Zinc Strike, Mrs. Molano (with black purse). Picture taken at Grant County Courthouse during trial of Mine Mill Six
5: 62Women gathered around fallen woman, doctor attending to her injury; Empire Zinc strike picket line, 1951
5: 63Miners, women, and children in crowd scene. Empire Zinc strike picket line, Hanover, New Mexico, 1951
5: 64Rachel Juarez, 14-year-old daughter of Mine Mill Local 890 striker, run down by scab auto. Mine Mill Union strike, 1951 October 23
5: 65L to R: Mrs. Mary Perez (wearing cap), mother of two small children and wife of Local 890 striker; Mrs. Elvira Molano, 59-year-old wife of Empire Zinc striker with over 30 years seniority with the company, 7 times arrested for assault and battery on scabs and company-paid lawmen; Louis Horseface Rhea, special deputy supposedly paid by company and former company-paid gunman
5: 66L to R: 14-year-old Rudy Chapin, being arrested by Louis Horseface Rhea. Empire Zinc strike, Hanover New Mexico, 1951 October 23
5: 67Violence in Hanover, New Mexico,=, 1951 October 23
5: 68The arrest of one of the Mill Mine Six. L to R: Mary Perez; Louis Rhea; Marvin Mosley
5: 69Mrs. Martinez, one of the women pickets run over by scab strike breaker, Empire Zinc strike, Hanover, New Mexico, 1951 October 23
5: 70Local 890, IUMM and SW union leaders in jail; L to R: Ernesto Velasquez; Clinton E. Jencks; Pablo Montoya; Fred Barreras; Cipriano Montoya; Vicente Becerra
5: 71Local 890, IUMM and SW union leaders jailed on charges of conspiracy to violate injunction of State District Court Judge Marshall limiting picketing in Empire Zinc strike, Hanover, New Mexico, Grant County Jail in Silver City, New Mexico. L to R: Fred Barreras; Ernesto Velasquez; Vicente Becerra; Cipriano Montoya, Pres. Local 890, IUMM and SW; Clinton E. Jencks, International Representative;, IUMM and SW, former Local 890 President
5: 72Local 890, IUMM and SW union leaders, just before being jailed for 90 days by Judge Marshall for contempt of court by allegedly aiding and abetting violation of injunction against picketing in Empire Zinc strike, Hanover, New Mexico. L to R: front row, Pablo Montoya; Clinton E. Jencks; Fred Barreras; back row, Ernesto Velasquez, Cipriano Montoya; Vicente Becerra
5: 73Marvin Mosley, former company paid gunman, now scab, working behind Mine Mill Union picket line at Empire division of New Jersey Zinc Co., Hanover, New Mexico
Mosley also holds Deputy commission and makes arrests of women at the request of the company or the sheriff. At left is Henrietta Williams, wife of an Empire Zinc striker, just prior to being thrown to the ground and hauled away to jail, where Mosley requested JP judge to place her under an peace bond because he is deathly afraid of her.
5: 74Bersabe Yuagado, age 64. Wife of Local 890 striker, run down by scab driver auto. August 23, at Empire division of New Jersey Zinc Co. Mine
Scabs were told by Grant County, New Mexico Sheriff L .K. Goforth to go through the line if you have to kill all of the women pickets.
5: 75Deputy Louis Rhea striking Mary Perez on the picket line at Empire division of New Jersey Zinc company
11-month picket line at Hanover, New Mexico, New Mexico near Bayard. Louis Rhea, former company-paid gunman, now deputy sheriff, marking arrest after Mary Perez, woman picket, from all-women picket line just after being struck over the head by Rhea, later black-jacked by him. Mrs. Perez is being held in Grant County Jail for peace bond secured on complaints of Rhea and another deputy who is working as a scab behind the picket lines, who testified they were deathly afraid of her. This picture is proof of the opposite.
5: 76Mrs. Consuelo Martinez, wife of Empire Zinc striker, being carried on a stretcher. Bayard, New Mexico district-wide Mine Mill strike, 1951 August 23
Run over by scabs (2 cars); leg broken in two places. Consuelo Martinez, wife of a Local 890 striker and mother of 5 children, run down and hospitalized with broken leg by scab-driven auto after scabs were told to go through that picket line if you have to kill all the women by Grant County sheriff L. K. Goforth at Empire division of New Jersey Zinc Company mine, on strike for 11 months. All-woman picket line since June 13, when District judge ordered company road marked Private cleared of all pickets.
5: 77Male picket line before women took over. Empire Zinc unit, Local 890, IUMM and SW, Hanover, New Mexico, 1950
5: 78Women picket line. Acutal scene. Empire Zinc Co., Hanover, New Mexico, 1951
5: 79Denver, shortly after arrest in union case. L to R: Virginia Jencks; Clinton Michael Jencks; Clinton E. Jencks; Linda Jencks , 1953 Summer
ultimately won in U.S. Supreme Court, 1956.
5: 80Vicente Becerra and family. He is a Shop-Steward. Empire Zinc and Mine Mill, Hanover, New Mexico, Local 890, IUMM and SW, 1954 (Color Snapshot)
5: 81At table: Press conference: Albert Kahn, Publisher, Cameron and Kahn; Harvey Matusow, Author of False Witness; Angus Cameron, Publisher, Cameron and Kahn
5: 82Miners gathered in a group, 1953
From Salt of the Earth. Independent Productions and Local 890, IUMM and SW, Bayard, New Mexico.
5: 83Clorinda Alderette
Played the part of Luz, a miner's wife in the film, .
5: 84Virginia Jencks as Ruth Barnes in Salt of the Earth
5: 85L to R: Rsaura Revueltas as Esperanza; Clorinda Alderette as Luz; Angela Sanchez as Consuelo; Virginia Jencks as Ruth; and Henrietta Williams as Teresa, all in a scene from the film Salt of the Earth
5: 86Rosaura Revueltas as Esperanza, and Mary Lou Castillo as Estella, in a scene from the film Salt of the Earth
5: 87Mary Lou Castillo as Estella in the film Salt of the Earth
5: 88Rosaura Revuletas as Esperanza and Juan Chacon as Ramon in a scene from the film, Salt of the Earth
5: 89Eviction scene from the film Salt of the Earth. Women are carrying furniture back into the house
5: 90Juan Chacon, as Ramon, takes his children from Esperanza. Rosaura Revueltas, as Esperanza, Will Geer as the Sheriff; he looks on in the scene from Salt of the Earth
5: 91Henrietta Williams as Teresa in film Salt of the Earth
5: 92Ernie Velasquez, Local 890
5: 93Local 890. Two little Mexican American girls standing outside of home
5: 94Angela Sanchez as Consuelo in the film Salt of the Earth
5: 9555th Convention. International Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers, 1960
First row: Nick Castillo, Arturo Flores, Ernie Velasquez; Clinton E. Jencks, and his son, Clinton Michael Jencks. Second row, Robert Kirker; Juan Chacon; Virginia Jencks; Luis Arraiza; Virginia Chacon; Clorinda Alderette; Frank Alderette.
Series 186.6: Edward (Lalo) Marquez
6: 1Snapshots of runners jumping over hurdles at an Olympic track meet after World War II
6: 2Snapshot of Sophia on a street corner, circa 1945
6: 3Crowd gathered at auditorium/park to send off draftees; Clifton, Arizona
6: 4Grenlee County Selectees; group portrait of four men, 1941 February 17
6: 5Group portrait of draftees on stone steps; Clifton-Morenci, Arizona, circa 1941
6: 6Group portrait of draftees
6: 7Crowd at send off for draftees. Clifton, Arizona, circa 1941
6: 8-25Group portraits of draftees; most are Mexican-Americans, a few are Anglos
6: 26Group portraits of members of the Draft Board, circa 1944
6: 27Group portrait of draftees, 1944 April 24
6: 28-29Group portraits of draftees
6: 30-31Seeing the boys off; buses with draftees leaving, 1941 January 19, March 9
March photograph contains a sign for "Whites" in the right background.
6: 32-35Selectees Greenlee County; group portraits of draftees, 1941 March 16
S. A. Morales may be the man in the bow tie in no. 34.
6: 36S. A. Morales giving papers to boys being drafted, 1941 March 16
6: 37Group portrait of three draftees in uniform; Don (Clamwinkle), Markie (Cat) and Cliff (Duke)
6: 38Portrait of Anglo draftee, 1941 March
6: 39Snapshot of draftees in uniform at dinner table
6: 40(Lalo) Marquez in uniform in a field
6: 41Snapshot of draftees seated at the sidewalk cafe La Deese drinking beer (Printed on Agfa Brovira Paper)
6: 42Lalo Marquez in fatigues and others in air force uniforms in a mock holdup
6: 43Snapshot of (Lalo) Marquez in uniform reclining in grass (Printed on Gevaert Ridax Paper)
6: 44(Lalo) Marquez in uniform seated on grass lawn
6: 45(Lalo) Marquez with two other men in the snow
6: 46Group portrait of men [possibly draftees]. The day they left, 1945 January 26
Note: [I think you recognize Arthur and the sweater. Is the second time the sweater was drafted. Its back now, I'll save it for souvenir.]
6: 47Draftee sitting with a Mexican girl in his arms
6: 48Two women in white bridesmaid dresses, exterior of house in background, Undated
6: 49Mexican women holding a baby
6: 50Lillian Marquez, Millie Mendoza (Snapshot)
6: 51Footrace at track meet
6: 52Lots of love always, Esther; snapshot of woman in riding pants and boots
6: 53Snapshot of (Lalo) Marquez and friend in baseball uniforms (Printed on Velox)
6: 54Group portrait of five men
6: 55Contact sheet from D. Velasquez' film
6: 56-67Individual frames from contact (55); men meeting and entrance to the American Smelting and Refining Company
6: 68Strikers of 1946 sitting and picketing with signs
6: 69(Lalo) or Henry Marquez standing with women sitting and writing at a table
6: 70-71Flood waters in streets; Duncan, Arizona, 1972
6: 72-74Bridges demolished by flood waters; South Clifton, Arizona, 1972
6: 75-79Flood waters and aftermath; North Clifton, Arizona, 1972
6: 80-84Rileys Drugstore surrounded by flood waters and North Clifton Bridge; Clifton, Arizona, 1972
6: 85-88Eastside central motel area and eastside road during and after flood; Clifton, Arizona, 1972
6: 89-94Area around Coronado Lodge after flood; Clifton, Arizona, 1972
6: 95-97Mullins Motors after flood; Clifton, Arizona, 1972
6: 98-100Trailers and house around Trail Liquor Store after flood; Clifton, Arizona, 1972
Series 186.7: Manuel Martinez
Items 1-62 are made in the mine at Ray, Arizona.
7: 1Album page containing items 2-14
7: 2-14Snapshots of unidentified individuals
7: 15Album page containing items 16-24
7: 16Mexican girls in a bar, 1956
7: 17Two GIs and their ladies, circa 1944
7: 18-24Snapshots of unidentified individuals
7: 25Album page containing items 26-40
7: 26Miner looking up shaft; 14 WINZ 3600 station
7: 27Miner looking down from shaft hole
7: 28Miner looking up shaft
7: 29Miner looking down shaft
7: 30Jim, pompman [pumpman?] 3600. Standing next to a swivel machine
7: 31Pomp [pump?] station 3600
7: 32Same men as in no. 31, different shot
7: 33Miners carrying timbers outside mine
7: 34No. 6 shaft, Manuel [Illegible], Nicho Vindiola, Manuel M. and Graham
7: 35-40Miners outside mine. Miners at lunch in no. 38
7: 41Album page containing items 42-49
7: 42No. 6 shaft, Miami Road, 1947
7: 43Miners seated on timbers outside mine
7: 44Manuel and Graham inside mine
7: 45-46No. 8 shaft 4000 station, F. Padilla, Manuel, and Chena Vasquez [Chelo Vasquez?]
7: 47Hoistman; interior of mine
7: 48Hoist and hoistman Hatshoson; interior of mine
7: 49Fred Padilla, Chena Vasquez [Chelo Vasquez?], Manuel, and Graham, toplander; interior of mine
7: 50Album page containing items 51-59
7: 51-53Chapo Martinez, Roy Farley, and Manuel N. Martinez at No. 8 shaft
7: 54-56Belmont shaft, 1961
7: 57-59Manuel Gutierrez, Gabriel Sanchio, Eddie [Bontalio?], Jose Meyers, and Manuel N. Martinez, No. 9 shaft, 2000 level
7: 60Album page containing items 61-62
7: 61-62Group portraits of miners outside changing room
7: 63Pvt. Chelo Chavez, circa 1944
7: 64Miner underground by an ore car
7: 65Miners underground; Liberato Martinez third from left, circa 1945
7: 66Miners underground having lunch, circa 1945
7: 67Manuel Martinez at home, circa 1960
Series 186.8: Edward Montoya
Originals and copy photographs numbered identically.
8: 1Morenci Southern Railroad funeral train carrying father
8: 2Snapshot of Edward Montoya in uniform seated on porch, circa 1944
8: 3Snapshot of Edward Montoya in uniform standing ona wall beside a saguaro, circa 1944
8: 4Half-profile portrait of Edward Montoya in uniform, circa 1944
Caption on back, partially legible, reads "Dearest Darling... Hello! darling [this] is the best I could do. [It] was raining like heck. Y[ou] can see my watch [wa...] band, [conduct?] badge, [te...] Battle Star. Good Conduct ribbon. Well I hope you like them. I love you Red. How do you like my ironing. Yours, Eddie."
8: 5Head-and-shoulders studio portrait of Edward Montoya in white shirt; pre-War
8: 6Bust portrait of Edward Montoya in uniform, circa 1944
Caption reads "To my girl, Aloisa, Hello Darling. All I can say is look what battle does to a guy."
8: 7Snapshot of boy in a field, building and mountains in background. Dad 8 yr. old
8: 8Snapshot of Edward Montoya, in uniform with sergeant stripes, and two other soldiers, circa 1944
8: 9Snapshot of Edward Montoya in uniform standing on the end of a gun barrel of a tank, circa 1944
8: 10Snapshot of Edward Montoya squatting at the edge of a street, wearing military cap, circa 1944
Caption reads "Hello Darling I love ... and always will be true ... to me. Thats all I ask ... you. Yours and only your... Eddie."
8: 11Snapshot of Mrs. Montoya in her early twenties
8: 12Mr. Montoya in a dark hat
8: 13Studio portrait of Edward Montoya and his two brothers, all under age ten, circa 1930
8: 14Full-length portrait of Abelino G. Lucero of St. Johns, Arizona in uniform, circa 1918
Series 186.9: S. A. Morales
9: 1Snapshot of Morales Freight Line truck on the side of the road, 1944
9: 2Group portrait of boy scouts; troop headed by S. A. Morales; Chase Creek Road, Clifton, Arizona
9: 3Studio portrait of S. A. Morales, member of draft board, circa 1940
9: 4Bust portrait of S. A. Morales in a cap and bow tie, 1926
9: 5S. A. Morales in his sixties. Photograph by Dutton and Gerczynski (Phoenix), circa 1965
9: 6Peter Riley, Judge T. E. Allen, and S. A. Morales (L to R), members of the draft board, in a park during celebrations for departing draftees; Clifton, Arizona, 1941 April 27
9: 7Morales Freight Line truck and backhoe on the road, 1944
9: 8Morales Freight Line trucks on city street, 1944
Series 186.10: Francisco Otero
10: 1Studio head-and-shoulders portrait of Esmiel Valdivia in uniform, out of boot camp, U.S. Army, 1941
10: 2Snapshot of Burt Valdivia in uniform at a rail station; Lampertheim, Germany, circa 1945
10: 3-4Tony Escalante in camouflage uniform beside tent, circa 1944
Escalante was stationed in the South Pacific and killed in action, receiving the Purple Heart.
10: 5Tony Escalante and Nellie Otero (his girlfriend and later his wife) on steps of a brick building. Probably Superior, Arizona, circa 1940
Nellie was pregnant when she heard of Tony's death, she lost the baby.
10: 6Snapshot of Tony Escalante with his sister and her child; Superior, Arizona, circa 1940
10: 7Snapshot of airmen in uniform posed in front of the bomber "Yankee Doodle Dandy", circa 1944
Caption reads "To Dad from your son."
10: 8Studio head-and-shoulders portrait of Esmiel Valdivia in uniform, circa 1944
Caption reads "Concario para la familia, Miley."
10: 9Snapshot of Tony Escalante and his girlfriend Nellie Otero on the Queen Creek Bridge; Superior, Arizona, 1940
10: 10Class portrait of first graders at Harding School, an all-Mexican school, 1945
Mary Helen Otero is in the first row on the far left.
10: 11Snapshot of Alicia Escalante (center) with two other women seated in the window of a building; Downtown Superior, Arizona, circa 1940
Caption reads "Para mi hermana Nellie cariosamente, Alicia."
10: 12Snapshot of Tony Escalante and sister at the Magma Club; Superior, Arizona, circa 1940
10: 13Snapshot of Antonio Otero with shovel working in the gardens at Boyce Thompson Arboretum; Superior, Arizona, 1948
10: 14Snapshot of Roy Cordan with baby in front of car, 1946
10: 15Head-and-shoulders portrait of Tia Nellie Otero, a seamstress, circa 1950
Series 186.11: Fred Padilla
11: 1Wedding portrait of Fred Padilla and Catalina Schlemmer Coronado with wedding party. Photograph by Paramount Studios (Globe and Superior), 1946
11: 2Wedding party of Almejo, 1940-1941
11: 3Mine workers in Rogers shaft; includes Fred Padilla, Eddie Bartolo, and Lorenzo Martinez
Possibly from Life Magazine.
11: 4Snapshot of Fred Padilla and other minero coworkers surrounded by equipment
Series 186.12: Frank Perea
Originals and copy photographs numbered identically.
12: 1Manuel Pena, Pablo Salcido, and Frank Perea (L to R) at the Oasis Nite Club; purchase from Binkley Prince; Clifton, Arizona, 1945 December 14
12: 2Patrons of the Oasis Nite Club; purchase of Oasis Nightclub from Binkley Prince; Clifton, Arizona, 1945 December 14
Series 186.13: John Pintek
Originals and copy photography numbered identically. Prints from original copy negatives and contacts from ASU Archives copy negatives of Pintek's copy prints.
13: 1Men gathered in front of the post office during the deportation of Mexican workers; start of drive; Bisbee, Arizona, 1917
13: 2Men going up the hill out of Lowell towards Warren, Arizona, 1917
13: 3Deportation of I.W.W. marching down the [railroad] track from Bisbee. Photograph by Dix. Sacramento curve at Mexican Mission or Old C and A Hospital, 1917
13: 4Workers at the bottom of Main Street in Lowell; Brophy Garage and Supply Building in background, 1917
13: 5Workers marching along railroad tracks with men carrying rifles, 1917
13: 6A birds-eye view of drive out of Lowell and climbing the hill towards Bakerville via Warren, 1917
13: 7Marching from Lowell, deportation of I.W.W.s. Photograph by Dix, 1917 July 12
13: 8Deportation of I.W.W.s passing Bakerfield. Photograph by Dix, 1917 July 12
Handwritten caption on verso notes Drive at Bakerville on the way to Warren (note taker of picture states that it was Bakersfield, which is wrong).
13: 9-10Crowd watching strikers in box cars, 1917
13: 11Men assembled in ballpark, deportation of I.W.W.s; Warren, Arizona. Photograph by Dix, 1917 July 12
13: 12Marching men to train, deportation of I.W.W.s. Photograph by Dix, 1917 July 12
Arrow in photo points to Bill Cleary in bottom center
13: 13Deportation of I.W.W.s, friends bidding strikers [in boxcars] goodbye. Photograph by Dix, 1917 July 12
13: 14Bill Cleary, attorney, President of Union [young fellow]
13: 15Train leaving for New Mexico, deportation of I.W.W.s. Photography by Dix, 1917 July 12
13: 16Crowd at train station, box cars in background; Warren, Arizona, 1917
Series 186.14: David Velasquez
Originals and copy photographs numbered identically.
14: 1Studio portrait of Benito Velasquez, David Velasquez's father
14: 2Studio portrait of Eduvijes Rodriguez, David Velasquez's mother
14: 3Studio portrait of the Velasquez family, 1910 May 18
Seated (L to R): Antonia and her daughter, Maura; Mariana, holding her granddaughter Felicitas; Alberto Velasquez; Francisca Velasquez; Eduvijes Rodriguez Velasquez; Anita Velasquez. Standing (L to R): Albina Velasquez, Jose Velasquez, Albino Velasquez, Benita Velasquez, Manuel Velasquez, Rafael Velasquez.
14: 4P.D. Council. Cleveland, Ohio. Photograph by Coronet Studios, 1946
David Velasquez is in the front row, third from the left; Orval Larson in front row, far right.
14: 5David Velasquez (fourth from left at intersection of the tables), Henry Marquez (second from left), and others at a banquet; Cleveland, Ohio, 1946
14: 6Minero in strike line at entrance to Phelps Dodge; El Paso, Texas, circa 1946
14: 7Union officers with charter for Local 616 of the International Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers union; Henry Marquez, financial secretary; Henry K. Holt, trustee; Leo Ortiz, international representative; J. L. Terry, vice-president; Ralph C. Morones, recording secretary; and David Velasquez, president, circa 1946
14: 8Orval Larson leading picket line at Phelps Dodge with Mexicanos; El Paso, Texas, 1946
14: 9Mexicanos strikers in a picket line at Phelps Dodge; David Velasquez kneeling in front; El Paso, Texas, 1946
14: 10Huelgistas; Mexicanos strikers marching along railroad tracks; Metcalf, Arizona, 1915 September 12
Leader is carrying a sign which reads Viva la Union.
14: 11Snapshot of men by a soft-drink cooler on Labor Day, 1945
14: 12-13International Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers organizers in front of a parade float, Labor Day, 1945
14: 14Parade float with banner: "Morenci Miners Union"; Labor Day, 1945
14: 15Henry Marquez and women at a desert botanical garden, circa 1950
14: 16Snapshot of David Velasquez leaning against a lamppost near sculpture, circa 1945
14: 17Snapshot of David Velasquez on a wharf; Port Ribble, circa 1945
14: 18Snapshot of David Velasquez standing next to the base of a sculpture, large city on horizon, circa 1945
14: 19Snapshot of David Velasquez by a wire gate; Near Almagordo, New Mexico, circa 1945
14: 20Snapshot of Henry Marquez and unidentified man on steps of a building next to a cannon, circa 1940
14: 21Snapshot of Henry Marquez, his wife Lilian, and others vacationing in a large city; Pike[?], circa 1940
14: 22Musicians playing in park; Morenci, Arizona, circa 1940
14: 23Strikers with pickets; Morenci, Arizona, circa 1940
14: 24-36IUMMSW strike; Morenci, Arizona, 1945 (1 Contact Sheet; 12 Images; Details of Each Frame)
14: 37-127Filming of Salt of the Earth (6 Contact Sheets; 72 Images; Details of Each Frame)
Series 186.15: Jesus J. Villanueva
15: 1Studio portrait of J. J. Villanueva, Sr. (Postcard)
15: 2Portrait of J. J. Villanueva, Sr.
Caption reads "Dedico este pequeno recuerdo a mi apreciable Esposa Luz a de Villanueva tu esposo. J. Jesus Villanueva"
15: 3Studio portrait of J. J. Villanueva, Sr. (seated) and an unidentified man, circa 1930
15: 4-5Mineros at lunch break in the open pit mine in Morenci, circa 1948
15: 6-16Snapshots of open pit mine at Morenci, 1975
15: 17Power plant, Miami Copper Company. Printed by the Albertype Company (Brooklyn, N.Y.); published by Norris-Kennedy Drug Company
Caption reads "Esta es casa de Fuerza de Miami; sea la Compania por la cual soy ahora empleado. J. J. Villanueva." Translation: "This is the Miami power plant, where I am now working."
15: 18Concentrator; Miami, Arizona. Photography by Kelley's Studio (Miami, Arizona)
Caption reads "En este lugar hay mil quinientos hombres, poco mas que menos Todos disfrutan del mismo sueldo de $5.65. Dichos aumento se deben a las Uniones. Su fich amanto J. J. Villanueva." Translation: "There are five hundred men working here, more or less. They all enjoy the same salary of $5.65. They owe this raise to the Unions. Your [?] lover, J. J. Villanueva."
15: 19El Cadaver al llegar al Sepulcro
Translation: The body on the way to the cemetery.
Series 186.16: Alberto Ybarra
16: 1Snapshot of Albert Ybarra and friends Wilan, Surburblas, and Wilson, all in the same company waiting to go to the Philippines from France, circa 1944
16: 2Joe Casillas (18 years old), Mercy Casillas (his sister), and Willie Bingochea on furlough before going overseas; Superior, Arizona, circa 1944
16: 3Willie Bingochea (18 years old) in uniform by a military truck after coming out of the hospital in the Philippines, where he suffered from Malaria
16: 4Tony Ramirez and Ralph Haro with girlfriend and sister; Tucson, Arizona, circa 1941
Ralph died in action in Okinawa.
16: 5Snapshot of Albert Ybarra in fatigues, circa 1944
Series 186.17: Pablo and Mary Salcido
17: 1Town fathers in front of wall with campaign posters from Carl Hayden, Adlai Stevenson, and others; Tex Niel is third from left
17: 2Francisco Garcia, father of Frank and Mary Salcido, circa 1900
17: 3Maric Salcido, about two years old
17: 4Mary Salcido and (Lalo)'s wife, who was a WAC, 1941
17: 5Studio portrait of Concha's wedding party, circa 1930
17: 6Portrait of members of the Ladies Auxillary of Alianza Hispano Americana, circa 1940s
17: 7Mexican-American Club of Clifton with majorettes on stage
17: 8Album page containing items 9-11
17: 9"I ain't got nobody"; woman sitting on the grass
17: 10Women wearing mink-collared coats with two men in a touring car, circa 1920
17: 11My Blue Heaven; Conchas boarding house, circa 1920
17: 12Album page containing items 13-18
17: 13"Little baby curls"; snapshot of two women
17: 14"I am thirsty for kisses and hungry for love"; snapshot of two women
17: 15"Elvira"; snapshot of woman sitting on ground with small child
17: 16Snapshot of man and woman
17: 17Sisters
17: 18"Please let me dream in your arms"; snapshot of woman with her arms around a man in a field
17: 19-24Album page with details of images; snapshots and portraits of unidentified individuals
17: 25-32Album page with details of images; snapshots of young women
17: 33-36Album page with details of images
17: 37-41Album page with details of images, Nimbus Valley, 1938 Summer
17: 42Initial ground-breaking of open-pit mine; oblique aerial with cars lining the road
17: 43Postcard of Morenci high school
17: 44Boys playing, one with a guitar
17: 45Picnic group
17: 46Flatbed truck with men and women
17: 47Open-pit ground-breaking party
17: 48Mary with two friends on a log
17: 49Mary and Sophia with man in hard hat
17: 50Mary with a group of girls (ages 12-14)
17: 51Farmer children
17: 52Pablos brother and wife in front of concentrator
17: 53Well dressed couple in the wind, 1920s
17: 54Mary and two friends at Plaza, 1920s
17: 55Three friends under trees, circa 1917
17: 56Concha (far left) with children
17: 57Maraquita and Pablo in black tie, circa 1945
17: 58Mary and two friends with umbrellas
17: 59-60Snapshot of Mary and friend in river
17: 61Mary and friend, 1929
17: 62Concha (when older) and Mary under trees
17: 63Girls and cars, circa 1915
17: 64Women wearing mink-collared coats, barbwire fence behind them
17: 65Mary with two women in a car with wooden spokes (boxing match)
17: 66Women sitting on edge of car, 1928
17: 67Slightly pregnant, 1910
17: 68-72Boxers
17: 73Dandy standing on a sidewalk
17: 74Contortionist in park
17: 75Mary and Boss, editor of Copper Era newspaper
17: 76Mary's dad
17: 77Pablo and two brothers
17: 78Opening of the open pit mine
17: 79Group picture
17: 80Portrait of Pablo
17: 81Two men with east village haircuts
17: 82Boxers with bags at railroad tracks
17: 83Pablo in uniform
17: 84Pablo in uniform with Mary
17: 85Pablo in uniform on Pacific island, Undated
17: 86Judes and Pablo, 1944 December 26
17: 87Military games from behind audience in stands
17: 88Mexican service man portrait from Clifton
17: 89Nurse corps; includes Mary
17: 90Mamacita Concha
17: 91Two military men with kids
17: 92Navy soldier with two kids
17: 93Pablo in khakis
17: 94Pablo (far left) with two brothers
17: 95More fun at the opening of the open-pit
17: 96Mexican cultural costume, dance, music, ceremonial
17: 97Clifton jail
17: 98Picnic with guitars, 1940s
17: 99-173Large album pages
17: 174-204Various loose images
17: 205Funeral procession with banner in the street gathered around the coffin